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Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Methodology article

Home range plus: a space-time characterization of movement over real landscapes

Andrew J Lyons1*, Wendy C Turner12 and Wayne M Getz13

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Environmental Science Policy & Management, University of California at Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, CA 94720-3114, USA

2 Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, Oslo, 0361, Norway

3 School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa

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Movement Ecology 2013, 1:2  doi:10.1186/2051-3933-1-2

Published: 3 July 2013



Advances in GPS technology have created both opportunities in ecology as well as a need for analytical tools that can deal with the growing volume of data and ancillary variables associated with each location.


We present T-LoCoH, a home range construction algorithm that incorporates time into the construction and aggregation of local kernels. Time is integrated with Euclidean space using an adaptive scaling of the individual's characteristic velocity, enabling the construction of utilization distributions that capture temporal partitions of space as well as contours that differentiate internal space based on movement phase and time-use metrics. We test T-LoCoH against a simulated dataset and provide illustrative examples from a GPS dataset from springbok in Namibia.


The incorporation of time into home range construction expands the concept of utilization distributions beyond the traditional density gradient to spatial models of movement and time, opening the door to new applications in movement ecology.

GPS; LoCoH; Movement ecology; Movement phase; Revisitation; Springbok; Time use; T-LoCoH; Utilization distribution